Libby carbon dating
At the time, no radiation-detecting instrument (such as a Geiger counter) was sensitive enough to detect the small amount of carbon-14 that Libby’s experiments required.
Libby reached out to Aristid von Grosse (1905–1985) of the Houdry Process Corporation who was able to provide a methane sample that had been enriched in carbon-14 and which could be detected by existing tools.
Known as radiocarbon dating, this method provides objective age estimates for carbon-based objects that originated from living organisms.
In the absence of any historical data concerning the intensity of cosmic radiation, Libby simply assumed that it had been constant. I first heard this story told by the geologist Cesare Emiliani, who described Libby as perhaps the last scientist to make a major contribution to science nearly single-handedly. He did this largely on his own over a period of many years, many trials and tribulations.The first 75 pages are the text that explains how C14 is formed, the assumptions made about its behavior in the atmosphere and in living tissue, how it was prepared and analyzed, etc. I still eagerly await that book, apparently yet to be written. The equation does not work in the short term or less than 5000 years or in the long term or over 40,000 to 50,000 years.The remainder of the book is a list of objects that at that time (1955) had been dated using his techniques. The author also does not find items in nature to develop the formula but first has the formula and then seeks out things in nature that add up to the numbers that work in his formula.
Libby and graduate student Ernest Anderson (1920–2013) calculated the mixing of carbon across these different reservoirs, particularly in the oceans, which constitute the largest reservoir.